[public-health] MEDICAL: DISEASES: ZIKA VIRUS : GUIDES : FACT SHEETS : INFORMATION SOURCES: Basic Information Sources about the Zika Virus: Facts, Information, Guidance, Guidelines, and Reports

 

MEDICAL: DISEASES: ZIKA VIRUS :

GUIDES :

FACT SHEETS :

INFORMATION SOURCES:

Basic Information Sources about the Zika Virus:

Facts, Information, Guidance, Guidelines, and Reports

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“Zika virus spreads to people primarily through the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito 

(Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus). People can also get Zika through sex with an infected man, and 

the virus can also be passed from a pregnant woman to her fetus. The most common symptoms of 

Zika are fever, rash, joint pain, and conjunctivitis (red eyes). The illness is usually mild with 

symptoms lasting for several days to a week after being bitten by an infected mosquito. 

People usually don’t get sick enough to go to the hospital, and they very rarely die of Zika. 

For this reason, many people might not realize they have been infected. However, Zika virus 

infection during pregnancy can cause a serious birth defect called microcephaly, as well as other 

severe fetal brain defects. Once a person has been infected, he or she is likely to be protected from 

future infections.

Zika virus was first discovered in 1947 and is named after the Zika Forest in Uganda. In 1952, the 

first human cases of Zika were detected and since then, outbreaks of Zika have been reported in 

tropical Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Islands. Zika outbreaks have probably occurred in 

many locations. Before 2007, at least 14 cases of Zika had been documented, although other cases 

were likely to have occurred and were not reported. Because the symptoms of Zika are similar to 

those of many other diseases, many cases may not have been recognized.

In May 2015, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) issued an alert regarding the first 

confirmed Zika virus infection in Brazil. On February 1, 2016, the World Health Organization 

(WHO) declared Zika virus a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). 

Local transmission has been reported in many other countries and territories. Zika virus will likely 

continue to spread to new areas.”

https://www.cdc.gov/zika/about/index.html

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What we know

No vaccine exists to prevent Zika virus disease (Zika).

Zika virus is mostly spread through the bite of an infected mosquito. Prevent Zika by avoiding 

mosquito bites (see below).

Mosquitoes that spread Zika virus bite mostly during the daytime.

Mosquitoes that spread Zika virus also spread dengue and chikungunya viruses.

Zika virus can be spread during sex by a man infected with Zika to his sex partners.

https://www.cdc.gov/zika/prevention/index.html

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Steps to prevent mosquito bites

http://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/treatments_and_procedures/hic-steps-to-prevent-mosquito-bites

OR

http://tinyurl.com/hxyk8pc

When in areas with Zika and other diseases spread by mosquitoes, take the following steps[PDF – 2 pages]:

Wear long-sleeved shirts and long pants.

Stay in places with air conditioning and window and door screens to keep mosquitoes outside.

Take steps to control mosquitoes inside and outside your home.

Sleep under a mosquito bed net if you are overseas or outside and are not able to protect yourself 

from mosquito bites.

Use Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-registered insect repellents with one of the following 

active ingredients: DEET, picaridin, IR3535, oil of lemon eucalyptus, or para-menthane-diol. 

Choosing an EPA-registered repellent ensures the EPA has evaluated the product for effectiveness. 

When used as directed, EPA-registered insect repellents are proven safe and effective, even for 

pregnant and breast-feeding women.

Always follow the product label instructions.

Reapply insect repellent as directed.

Do not spray repellent on the skin under clothing.

If you are also using sunscreen, apply sunscreen before applying insect repellent.

To protect your child from mosquito bites:

Do not use insect repellent on babies younger than 2 months old.

Do not use products containing oil of lemon eucalyptus or para-menthane-diol on children 

younger than 3 years old.

Dress your child in clothing that covers arms and legs.

Cover crib, stroller, and baby carrier with mosquito netting.

Do not apply insect repellent onto a child’s hands, eyes, mouth, and cut or irritated skin.

Adults: Spray insect repellent onto your hands and then apply to a child’s face.

Treat clothing and gear with permethrin or purchase permethrin-treated items.

Treated clothing remains protective after multiple washings. See product information to learn 

how long the protection will last.

If treating items yourself, follow the product instructions carefully.

Do NOT use permethrin products directly on skin. They are intended to treat clothing.

Even if they do not feel sick, travelers returning to the United States from an area with

Zika should take steps to prevent mosquito bites for 3 weeks. These steps will prevent them from 

passing Zika to mosquitoes that could spread the virus to other people.

Sick with Chikungunya, Dengue, or Zika? Protect yourself and others from mosquito bites 

during the first week of illness.

Sick with Chikungunya, Dengue, or Zika?

If you have Zika, protect others from getting sick

During the first week of infection, Zika virus can be found in the blood and passed from an 

infected person to another mosquito through mosquito bites. An infected mosquito can then 

spread the virus to other people.

To help prevent others from getting sick, strictly follow steps to prevent mosquito bites[PDF – 

2 pages] during the first week of illness.

A man with Zika virus can pass it to his female or male sex partners.

Zika virus can stay in semen longer than in blood, but we don’t know exactly how long Zika 

stays in semen.

To help prevent spreading Zika from sex, you can use condoms, correctly from start to finish, 

every time you have sex. This includes vaginal, anal, and oral (mouth-to-penis) sex.

Not having sex is the only way to be sure that someone does not get sexually transmitted Zika virus.

If you are a man who lives in or has traveled to an area with Zika

If your partner is pregnant, either use condoms correctly (warning: this link contains sexually 

graphic images) from start to finish, every time you have vaginal, anal, and oral (mouth-to-penis) 

sex, or do not have sex during the pregnancy.
Even if they do not feel sick, travelers returning to the United States from an area with Zika should 

take steps to prevent mosquito bites[PDF – 2 pages] for 3 weeks so they do not spread Zika to 

mosquitoes that could spread the virus to other people.

If you are concerned about getting Zika from a male sex partner

You can use condoms correctly from start to finish, every time you have vaginal, anal, and oral 

(mouth-to-penis) sex. Condoms also prevent HIV and other STDs. Not having sex is the only way to 

be sure that you do not get sexually transmitted Zika virus.
Pregnant women should talk to a doctor or other healthcare provider if they or their male sex 

partners recently traveled to an area with Zika, even if they don’t feel sick.

Information for travelers

Traveling? Visit CDC’s Travelers Health website to see if the country you plan to visit has any travel 

health notices.

Even if they do not feel sick, travelers returning to the United States from an area with

Zika should take steps to prevent mosquito bites for 3 weeks so they do not spread Zika to mosquitoes 

that could spread the virus to other people.

CDC has posted maps that show elevation levels in countries with Zika.

Mosquito Bite Prevention for Travelers [PDF – 2 pages]

Read the Traveler’s Health Yellow Book for more information on Protection against

Mosquitoes, Ticks, Fleas & Other Insects and Arthropods.

Additional Resources

Guidelines for Travelers Visiting Friends and Family in Areas with Chikungunya, Dengue, or Zika

Guidelines for US Citizens and Residents Living in Areas with Ongoing Zika Virus Transmission

Update: Interim Guidance for Prevention of Sexual Transmission of Zika Virus — United States, 2016

Interim Guidelines for Prevention of Sexual Transmission of Zika Virus – United States, 2016

Zika and Sexual Transmission

Through mosquito bites
From mother to child
Through sexual contact
Through blood transfusion
Through laboratory exposure

Risks

Anyone who lives in or travels to an area where Zika virus is found and has not already been infected 

with Zika virus can get it from mosquito bites. Once a person has been infected, he or she is likely to 

be protected from future infections.

https://www.cdc.gov/zika/transmission/index.html

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https://www.cdc.gov/zika/geo/index.html

 

What we know

Pregnant women can be infected with Zika virus.

The primary way that pregnant women get Zika virus is through the bite of an infected mosquito.

Zika virus can be spread by a man to his sex partners.

A pregnant woman can pass Zika virus to her fetus.

Zika virus can be passed from a pregnant woman to her fetus during pregnancy or at delivery.

What we do not know

If a pregnant woman is exposed

We don’t know how likely she is to get Zika.

If a pregnant woman is infected

We don’t know how the virus will affect her or her pregnancy.

Listen to the “Zika and Pregnancy” Podcast

Pregnant woman holding her stomachWhat Pregnant Women Need to Know

We don’t know how likely it is that Zika will pass to her fetus.

We don’t know if the fetus is infected, if the fetus will develop birth defects.

We don’t know when in pregnancy the infection might cause harm to the fetus.

We don’t know whether her baby will have birth defects.

We don’t know if sexual transmission of Zika virus poses a different risk of birth defects than 

mosquito-borne transmission.

More Discussion in More Information

https://www.cdc.gov/zika/pregnancy/index.html

Zika and microcephaly

Since May 2015, Brazil has experienced a significant outbreak of Zika virus. In recent months, 

Brazilian officials reported an increase in the number of babies born with microcephaly.

Since these initial reports of a link between Zika and microcephaly, researchers across the world began 

working to study the link between Zika during pregnancy and microcephaly. In a recent article, CDC 

scientists announced that there is now enough evidence to conclude that Zika virus infection during 

pregnancy is a cause of microcephaly and other severe fetal brain defects and has been linked to 

problems in infants, including eye defects, hearing loss, and impaired growth. Scientists are studying the 

full range of other potential health problems that Zika virus infection during pregnancy may cause.

Other possible causes of microcephaly

Microcephaly can happen for many reasons. Some babies have microcephaly because of

Changes in their genes
Certain infections during pregnancy
A woman being close to or touching toxins during pregnancy

Recent media reports have suggested that a pesticide called pyriproxyfen might be linked with microcephaly. 

Pyriproxyfen has been approved for the control of disease-carrying mosquitoes by the World Health Organization. 

Pyriproxyfen is a registered pesticide in Brazil and other countries, it has been used for decades, 

and it has not been linked with microcephaly. In addition, exposure to pyriproxyfen would not explain recent 

study results showing the presence of Zika virus in the brains of babies born with microcephaly.
Zika and Other Birth Outcomes

In addition to microcephaly, other problems have been detected among fetuses and infants infected with Zika 

virus before birth, such as eye defects, hearing loss, and impaired growth. Although Zika virus is a cause of 

microcephaly and other severe fetal brain defects and has been linked with these other problems in infants, 

there is more to learn. Researchers are collecting data to better understand the extent Zika virus’ impact 

on mothers and their children.

Future Pregnancies

Based on the available evidence, we think that Zika virus infection in a woman who is not pregnant would not 

pose a risk for birth defects in future pregnancies after the virus has cleared from her blood. From what we 

know about similar infections, once a person has been infected with Zika virus, he or she is likely to be protected 

from a future Zika infection.

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https://www.cdc.gov/zika/vector/index.html

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Pregnant Women and Women of Reproductive Age

UPDATE: Interim Guidance for Health Care Providers Caring for Women of Reproductive Age with Possible 

Zika Virus Exposure – United States, 2016 (March 25, 2016)

Interim Guidelines for Health Care Providers Caring for Pregnant Women and Women of Reproductive Age 

with Possible Zika Virus Exposure – United States, 2016 (Feb. 5, 2016)

Interim Guidelines for Pregnant Women During a Zika Virus Outbreak—United States, 2016 (Jan. 22, 2016)

Questions and Answers for Healthcare Providers Caring for Pregnant Women and Women of Reproductive Age 

with Possible Zika Virus Exposure

Infants and Children

UPDATE: Interim Guidelines for Healthcare Providers Caring for Infants and Children with Possible Zika 

Virus Infection – United States, February 2016 (Feb. 19, 2016)

Interim Guidelines for the Evaluation and Testing of Infants with Possible Congenital Zika Virus Infection – 

United States, 2016 (Jan. 29, 2016)

Questions and Answers for Healthcare Providers Caring for Infants and Children 

with Possible Zika Virus Infection

Sexual Transmission

UPDATE: Interim Guidance for Prevention of Sexual Transmission of Zika Virus – 

United States, 2016 (March 25, 2016)

Interim Guidelines for Prevention of Sexual Transmission of Zika Virus – 

United States, 2016 (Feb. 12, 2016)

https://www.cdc.gov/zika/hc-providers/clinical-guidance.html

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Modes of Transmission
Clinical Signs and Symptoms
Diagnosis and Reporting
Treatment

https://www.cdc.gov/zika/hc-providers/clinicalevaluation.html

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https://www.cdc.gov/zika/hc-providers/diagnostic.html

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https://www.cdc.gov/zika/hc-providers/registry.html

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Testing Algorithms
Health Care for Infants
Fact Sheets on Zika Virus Testing
Preconception Counseling

https://www.cdc.gov/zika/hc-providers/tools.html

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In May 2015, the World Health Organization reported the first local transmission of Zika 

virus in the Western Hemisphere, with autochthonous (locally acquired) cases identified in Brazil. 

As of January 15, 2016, local transmission had been identified in at least 14 countries or territories 

in the Americas, including Puerto Rico (See Pan American Health Organization [PAHO] link below 

for countries and territories in the Americas with Zika virus transmission). Further spread to other 

countries in the region is likely.

Local transmission of Zika virus has not been documented in the continental United States. However, 

Zika virus infections have been reported in travelers returning to the United States. With the recent 

outbreaks in the Americas, the number of Zika virus disease cases among travelers visiting or 

returning to the United States likely will increase. These imported cases may result in local spread of 

the virus in some areas of the continental United States, meaning these imported cases may result in 

human-to-mosquito-to-human spread of the virus.

Zika virus infection should be considered in patients with acute onset of fever, maculopapular rash, 

arthralgia or conjunctivitis, who traveled to areas with ongoing transmission in the two weeks prior 

to illness onset. Clinical disease usually is mild. However, during the current outbreak, Zika virus 

infections have been confirmed in several infants with microcephaly and in fetal losses in women 

infected during pregnancy. We do not yet understand the full spectrum of outcomes that might be 

associated with infection during pregnancy, nor the factors that might increase risk to the fetus. 

Additional studies are planned to learn more about the risks of Zika virus infection during pregnancy.

Healthcare providers are encouraged to report suspected Zika virus disease cases to their state health 

department to facilitate diagnosis and to mitigate the risk of local transmission. State health departments 

are requested to report laboratory-confirmed cases to CDC. CDC is working with states to expand 

Zika virus laboratory testing capacity, using existing RT-PCR protocols.

This CDC Health Advisory includes information and recommendations about Zika virus clinical 

disease, diagnosis, and prevention, and provides travel guidance for pregnant women and women who 

are trying to become pregnant. Until more is known and out of an abundance of caution, pregnant 

women should consider postponing travel to any area where

Zika virus transmission is ongoing. Pregnant women who do travel to these areas should talk to their 

doctors or other healthcare providers first and strictly follow steps to avoid mosquito bites during the trip. 

Women trying to become pregnant should consult with their healthcare providers before traveling to these 

areas and strictly follow steps to avoid mosquito bites during the trip.

http://emergency.cdc.gov/han/han00385.asp

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http://www.cdc.gov/zika/geo/

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If you’ve been thinking about traveling to warmer climates or have been catching a few news stories, you 

may have heard about something called the Zika virus — a disease spread primarily through mosquito bites.

Zika causes mild illness in some, however, we are closely tracking and responding to recent outbreaks of 

this virus because the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) issued reports that indicate Zika may be linked 

to serious birth defects in babies of mothers who were infected with this virus while pregnant.

While this virus is not new, it is new to the Americas. The first case was reported in Brazil just last spring. 

Since that time, it has spread through South and Central America, and the Caribbean. No locally transmitted 

Zika cases from mosquitoes have been reported in the continental U.S., but cases have been reported in 

travelers returning from areas where Zika is present. As Zika continues to spread in our region, the number 

of cases among travelers visiting or returning to the U.S. is likely to increase.

In addition to serving as part of the President’s national security team, I am also a mom. I personally know 

how important it is to have all of the information you need to keep yourself and your family healthy and safe. 

There is still much we don’t know about this virus but we’re learning more every day. To help keep you 

up-to-date as we learn more, we have all the latest updates you need in one place:

http://www.cdc.gov/Zika

Topics Covered in this Whitehouse Document

What is the Zika virus?
How is the President working with local leaders to combat Zika?
How is Zika transmitted?
Where are people contracting Zika?
Who is at risk of being infected?
Why are there specific recommendations for pregnant women?
What can I do to prevent a Zika infection?
Should we be concerned about Zika in the United States?
What is the President doing to help combat and control the spread of the Zika virus?

https://www.whitehouse.gov/blog/2016/01/27/zika-virus-what-you-need-know

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Areas with active Zika virus transmission
Epidemiology
Zika cases diagnosed in the UK
Symptoms

The majority of people infected with Zika virus have no symptoms. For those with symptoms, 

Zika virus tends to cause a mild, short-lived (2 to 7 days) illness. Signs and symptoms suggestive 

of Zika virus infection may include a combination of the following:

rash
itching/pruritus
fever
headache
arthralgia/arthritis
myalgia
conjunctivitis
lower back pain
retro-orbital pain

The symptoms of Zika are similar to dengue (caused by a related flavivirus) or chikungunya 

(an alphavirus), which are often co-circulating in areas where Zika virus is present. Laboratory 

testing is essential for the correct diagnosis.

Serious complications and deaths from Zika are not common. However, based on a growing body 

of research there is scientific consensus that Zika virus is a cause of microcephaly and other congenital 

anomalies (also referred to as congenital Zika syndrome), and Guillain-Barré syndrome 

(World Health Organization, 14 April 2016).

Transmission
Advice for all travellers
Preventing infection by mosquito bites
Preventing infection by sexual transmission
Pregnant women and their male partners who are planning to travel
Pregnant women who have travelled
Women planning pregnancy and their male partners
Immunocompromised individuals
Guidance for primary care
Zika and pregnancy
Guidance for neonatologists
Zika and Guillain-Barré syndrome
Zika and immunocompromised patients
Diagnosis
Treatment
Surveillance for congenital Zika syndrome

https://www.gov.uk/guidance/zika-virus

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This news article was withdrawn on 30 June 2016

Public Health England is constantly monitoring the Zika situation and updating advice accordingly. 

For the latest recommendations, see our guidance pages.

https://www.gov.uk/guidance/zika-virus

This Withdrawn Document Covers

Travel and pregnancy
Preventing sexual transmission

https://www.gov.uk/government/news/zika-virus-updated-travel-advice-for-pregnant-women

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Contents

What is the Zika virus?
How is the Zika virus transmitted?
What are the symptoms of Zika virus infection?
What are the risks of Zika virus infection during pregnancy?
How is Zika virus infection diagnosed?
What is the treatment for Zika virus infection?
Is there a vaccine or medication that prevents Zika virus infection?
How can Zika virus infection be prevented?

http://www.aafp.org/patient-care/emergency/zika-virus.html

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This page contains information for clinicians and public health practitioners about Zika virus. 

This is a rapidly evolving situation. Monitoring of Zika virus will occur on an ongoing basis with updates 

to this website as important information comes to hand. Check regularly for the latest information.

DF printable version of Zika virus – information for clinicians and public health practitioners – PDF 57 KB

About Zika virus
Symptoms of Zika virus infection
Transmission
Zika virus and pregnancy
Prevention
Diagnosis
Laboratory testing
Treatment
Reporting
Public health management of a laboratory confirmed case
Further information is available

Zika virus infection is generally a non-severe febrile viral illness transmitted by mosquitoes. 

Zika virus infection should be considered in people who have recently travelled overseas.

Scientific evidence particularly from outbreaks of Zika virus in Brazil and French Polynesia show that 

a Zika virus infection in a pregnant woman can be transmitted to the fetus, and can cause certain 

congenital abnormalities (including microcephaly). Further studies are required to understand the 

degree of risk of an adverse outcome occurring and the factors that influence this risk.

Specific travel precautions are recommended for pregnant women or women planning pregnancy.

Summary of recommendations for clinicians and public health practitioners

Zika virus infection should be considered in patients with acute fever, rash, arthralgia or 

conjunctivitis, who have travelled in the two weeks prior to onset of illness to areas with 

current or recent local transmission of Zika virus; refer to the Department of Health 

webpage for the current country list.

All travellers should take steps to avoid mosquito bites in order to prevent Zika virus 

infection and other mosquito-borne diseases such as dengue, malaria and chikungunya.

Pregnant women are advised to consider postponing travel to any area with current or 

recent local Zika virus transmission

Pregnant women who do decide to travel to one of these areas are advised to consult with 

a doctor first and strictly follow mosquito bite prevention measures during their trip.

Women trying to become pregnant are advised to consult with a doctor before travelling and 

strictly follow mosquito bite prevention measures.

Women who have returned from a country with current or recent local Zika virus transmission 

and who are pregnant are advised to consult a doctor and be evaluated, refer to Interim 

recommendations for assessment of pregnant women returning from Zika virus-affected areas.

Men who have returned from a country with current or recent local Zika virus transmission and 

have a partner who is pregnant or planning pregnancy are advised to consult a doctor to discuss 

recommendations for preventing sexual transmission, refer to Interim recommendations for 

reducing the risk of sexual transmission of Zika virus.

Zika virus infection is notifiable in Australia as a flavivirus (unspecified) infection and should be 

notified to state and territory health departments.

In North Queensland and parts of Central Queensland where suitable mosquito vectors are present, 

clinicians should immediately report clinically suspected cases of Zika virus infection to local public 

health units, as they do for suspected cases of dengue. Public health Authorities will take action to 

mitigate the risk of local transmission.

http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/ohp-zika-health-practitioners.htm

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http://www.legco.gov.hk/yr15-16/english/panels/hs/papers/hs20160215cb2-836-3-e.pdf

OR

http://tinyurl.com/zdwbyx8

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http://tinyurl.com/zyxrcm3

http://www.legco.gov.hk/yr15-16/english/panels/fseh/papers/fseh20160412cb2-1220-5-e.pdf

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http://www.who.int/entity/mediacentre/factsheets/zika/en/index.html

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STATISTICS : RESEARCH GUIDES : INSTRUCTIONS: How to Use the United States 

Government Agency Section of the Statistics Resources Research Guide for Statistical Data 

Sources on Specific Topic Searches

Briefly, do you need statistical information about the zika virus, I just added this month this 

government agency

Data and the Uses of Data FROM The National Institute

INFECTIOUS DISESES AND ALLERGIES :
STATISTICS :
DATA :
DEMOGRAPHICS :
COUNTRIES: UNITED STATES: GOVERNMENT:
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ALLERGY AND INFECTIOUS DISEASE:
Search Results for Statistical Data and the Uses of Data 

FROM The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease

http://tinyurl.com/guazj8u

Then Using this link

Google Domain Limited Web Search (PUBMED)

http://tinyurl.com/zhgzvdz

I run this search

zika AND (“National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease” OR NIAID) AND (statistics OR 

statistical OR data OR demography OR demographics OR demographic) AND SITE: PUBMED

382 results

http://tinyurl.com/josc69y

Different Searches have different goals

“Domain” limits to PUBMED, SCIENCEDIRECT, JSTOR, NCJRS and so forth find sources from 

those databases or discussion of the same from other sources.

Domain limits to GOV finds government sources, not limited to the United States Federal Government

flint AND michigan AND lead AND water AND (“National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease” 

OR NIAID) AND (statistics OR statistical OR data OR demography OR demographics OR demographic) 

AND SITE: GOV

About 12,700 results

http://tinyurl.com/h2wrcpg

and there will always be false drops mixed in with the on topic finds

*

Home – ASPR Blog – PHE Home
www.phe.gov/…/default1.aspx
Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness an…
Families in Flint, Michigan are experiencing a public health crisis resulting from … water 

On January 19, President Obama designated the HHS as the lead …. Visit challenge.gov and 

once on the main page, click on the Solutions tab on the left ….. Disease (NIAID) released a 

Funding Opportunity Announcement to establish …

.

Michigan governor issues appeal over Flint funds denial – News – Yahoo
news.yahoo.com/michigan-governor-issues-appeal-over-flint-funds-den...
Yahoo! News
Mar 3, 2016 – (Reuters) – Michigan Governor Rick Snyder has urged federal … deal with the 

crisis caused by lead-contaminated water in the city of Flint, his office said on Thursday. … 

Egyptian President Says Submarine Sent to EgyptAir Crash Site …. The NIAID Director and 

ABC News’ Dr. Richard Besser discuss how to …
Former State Lawmaker Thinks Water Crisis “Vastly … – CNN.com
transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/1601/21/nday.04.html

.

CNN
Jan 21, 2016 – CUOMO: Outrage over the Flint water crisis is growing across the country, but … 

Bill Ballenger is a former Michigan state senator and representative. … country, children under 

age 6, with elevated lead levels in their blood right now. …. knows, director of the 

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease, …
CDC director: What we’re doing about the Zika virus – CDC Blogs
blogs.cdc.gov/…/cdc-director-what-were-d...

*****************************************

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Feb 1, 2016 – To receive email updates about this page, enter your email address: … 

What is the government doing? …. Zika virus outbreak, we do not currently have data on risk 

factors for severe Zika virus disease. We do …… We Must focus on the victims in 

FLINT MICHIGAN and other cities in the US by helping them to …

******************************************

Returning to “Different Searches have different goals”

Limiting to Images, the original pages often have solid information and tables, graphs and charts

Limiting to Videos: Here one may find instruction on how to use the data or explaing what is out there

Books: Detailed discussion of statistical sources from these agencies

Scholar: A way to find out how the data is being used and if there is a methods section in the 

found research articles, guidance on how to use the data in research.

TRIP: Evidence Based Research Sources

PogoFrog: A medical grab bag of sources.

This in a large nutshell is what the government agency section of my statistics resources research 

guide can do for its users.

http://tinyurl.com/z6evsnr

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Zika Travel Notices

Zika Virus in Cape Verde
Zika Virus in Mexico
The Caribbean
Currently includes: Anguilla; Aruba; Barbados; Bonaire; Cuba; Curaçao; Dominica; 

Dominican Republic; Grenada; Guadeloupe; Haiti; Jamaica; Martinique; t

he Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, a US territory; Saint Barthelemy; Saint Lucia; 

Saint Martin; Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Sint Maarten; Trinidad and Tobago; 

US Virgin Islands
Central America
Currently includes: Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, 

Panama
The Pacific Islands
Currently includes: American Samoa, Fiji, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, New Caledonia, 

Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Tonga
South America
Currently includes: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, 

Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela
2016 Summer Olympics (Rio 2016)
Zika Virus Health Advisory Infographics
Questions and Answers: Zika risk at high elevations

Special Populations

Guidelines for Travelers Visiting Friends and Family in Areas with Chikungunya, 

Dengue, or Zika
Guidelines for US Citizens and Residents Living in Areas with Ongoing 

Zika Virus Transmission

For Clinicians

Zika: For Healthcare Providers on CDC’s Zika site
Zika in CDC Health Information for International Travel – “Yellow Book”
Update: Interim Guidance for Prevention of Sexual Transmission of Zika Virus — 

United States, 2016
Update: Interim Guidance for Health Care Providers Caring for Women of Reproductive 

Age with Possible Zika Virus Exposure — United States, 2016

Countries with Endemic Zika

Some countries in Africa, the Pacific Islands, and Asia have reported Zika in the past and 

may continue to occasionally report new cases. The risk to travelers in these endemic 

countries is likely much lower than it is in countries with Zika epidemics 

(see Q&A: Zika Risk in Countries with Endemic Zika). Because Zika infection in a pregnant 

woman causes severe birth defects, pregnant women should consult with their health care 

provider and, if they decide to travel, strictly follow steps to prevent mosquito bites. Travel 

notices have not been issued for these destinations but would be considered if the number of 

cases rises to the level of an outbreak. Check this page for the most up-to-date information 

before you make travel plans.

Africa: Angola, Benin, Burkina-Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Côte d’Ivoire, 

Egypt, Ethiopia, Gabon, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Liberia, Mali, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, 

Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia

Asia: Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Maldives, Pakistan, Philippines, 

Thailand, Vietnam

The Pacific Islands: Easter Island, Vanuatu

https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/page/zika-travel-information

*

HEARING DATE: FEBRUARY 24, 2016 2:00 PM 2154 RAYBURN HOB

PURPOSE:

• To examine the coordinated federal response to the spread of the Zika virus both 

within the United States (US) and internationally.
• To address confusion and misinformation surrounding measures taken at home and 

abroad to prevent further transmission of Zika, especially with the 2016 Summer Olympics 

taking place in Brazil.

BACKGROUND:

• The Zika virus is a disease transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes.
• The World Health Organization estimates between 3 million to 4 million cases of the 

Zika virus could appear in the Americas over a 12 month period.
• According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, as of February 17, 2016 82 

travel-associated Zika cases were reported in the US.
• President Obama requested $1.8 billion in emergency funding to prepare for and respond 

to the spread of Zika.

WITNESSES AND TESTIMONIES

Name Title Organization Panel Document
Dr. Anne Schuchat Principal Deputy Director Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Document
Dr. Anthony Fauci Director, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases 

National Institutes of Health Document
Dr. John Armstrong Surgeon General and Secretary of Health State of Florida Document
Dr. Bill Moreau Managing Director for Sports Medicine United States Olympic Committee Document

http://tinyurl.com/hj2pwvn

*

 

Summary:

The Zika virus is spread to people through the bite of infected mosquitos. About 1 in 5 people who 

get infected with Zika virus will show symptoms.

In the past several weeks, increased cases of Zika virus disease (Zika) have been reported in South 

and Central America, and to a limited degree in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, a US territory, 

and the US Virgin Islands. Zika is a little known illness spread by a certain type of mosquito. 

Although most people who may be exposed to Zika virus will have only mild or no symptoms, there 

has been evidence linking Zika virus to negative effects on pregnancies in some cases, which has 

received widespread public attention. We understand that this news is concerning, especially to 

pregnant women and their families who may travel to or live in affected areas. Here are some 

answers to common questions about Zika.

What is Zika?
Zika and Pregnancy
How to Protect Yourself from Zika
Zika in the Continental US?
What HHS is Doing

http://www.hhs.gov/blog/2016/01/28/zika-101.html

*

https://directorsblog.nih.gov/2016/01/26/zika-virus-an-emerging-health-threat/

*

Zika Virus: Zika Virus Infection: Everything You Need to Know about Zika Virus: Symptoms, Diagnosis 

and Treatment (Microcephaly Symptoms, Treatment of Zika Virus, Prevention of Zika Virus)
Author Jason Jackson
Publisher CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2016
ISBN 1523787406, 9781523787401
Length 36 pages

http://tinyurl.com/hestwfc

*

Zika News for the General Public
Zika Updates for Health Authorities

Zika Resources

Alerts and Updates
Case Definitions
Technical Reports and
Guidelines
Communication Materials
Strategy and Resource Mobilization
Risk Communication and Community Engagement
WHO Website

http://www.paho.org/hq/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=11585&Itemid=41688&lang=en

OR

http://tinyurl.com/jg7nw7d

*

MEDICAL: DISEASES: ZIKA:
BBC News: Zika Outbreak: What You Need to Know
By James Gallagher, Health editor,
BBC News website
31 May 2016
From the section Health

less…

https://publichealth30.wordpress.com/2016/07/16/sportmed-medical-diseases-zika-bbc-news-zika-outbreak-what-you-need-to-know/

OR

http://tinyurl.com/jcdch73

*

MEDICAL: DISEASES: ZIKA:
Infectious Diseases / Bacteria / Viruses :
Zika Virus: Symptoms, Facts, Diagnosis
Written by Lori Smith BSN MSN CRNP
Knowledge Center
Last updated: Fri 15 July 2016
Medical News Today (MNT)

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/305163.php

*

MEDICAL: DISEASES: ZIKA VIRUS :
COUNTRIES: GREAT BRITAIN:
Zika Virus FROM National Health Service (NHS), UK
Zika Virus
FROM National Health Service (NHS), UK

http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/zika-virus/Pages/Introduction.aspx

*

Technical Guidance

Prevention of sexual transmission of Zika virus
Updated 7 June 2016

Vector control operations framework for Zika virus
30 May 2016

Pregnancy management in the context of Zika virus infection
Updated 13 May 2016

Surveillance for Zika virus infection, microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome
6 April 2016

Knowledge, Attitudes and Practice surveys Zika virus disease and potential complications
24 March 2016

Laboratory testing for Zika virus infection
23 March 2016

Risk communication and community engagement for Zika virus prevention and control
11 March 2016

All publications and resources

http://tinyurl.com/jq7zonu

http://www.who.int/csr/disease/zika/en/

*

Zika Travel Notices

Zika Virus in Cape Verde
Zika Virus in Mexico
The Caribbean
Currently includes: Anguilla; Aruba; Barbados; Bonaire; Cuba; Curaçao; Dominica; 

Dominican Republic; Grenada; Guadeloupe; Haiti; Jamaica; Martinique; the 

Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, a US territory; Saint Barthelemy; Saint Lucia; 

Saint Martin; Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Sint Eustatius; Sint Maarten; 

Trinidad and Tobago; US Virgin Islands
Central America
Currently includes: Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama
The Pacific Islands
Currently includes: American Samoa, Fiji, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, New Caledonia, 

Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Tonga
South America
Currently includes: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, 

Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela
2016 Summer Olympics (Rio 2016)

http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/page/zika-travel-information

*

About Zika virus
Symptoms of Zika virus infection
Transmission
Zika virus and pregnancy
Prevention
Diagnosis
Laboratory testing
Treatment
Reporting
Public health management of a laboratory confirmed case
Further information is available

http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/ohp-zika-health-practitioners.htm

OR

http://tinyurl.com/z6jftwu

*

Key facts

Zika virus disease is caused by a virus transmitted primarily by Aedes mosquitoes.
People with Zika virus disease can have symptoms including mild fever, skin rash, conjunctivitis, 

muscle and joint pain, malaise or headache. These symptoms normally last for 2-7 days.
There is scientific consensus that Zika virus is a cause of microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome. 

Links to other neurological complications are also being investigated.

Introduction
Signs and Symptoms
Complications of Zika virus disease
Transmission
Diagnosis
Treatment
Prevention

WHO response

WHO is supporting countries to control Zika virus disease by taking actions outlined in the 

“Zika Strategic Response Framework”:

Define and prioritize research into Zika virus disease by convening experts and partners.
Enhance surveillance of Zika virus and potential complications.
Strengthen capacity in risk communication to engage communities to better understand 

risks associated with Zika virus.
Strengthen the capacity of laboratories to detect the virus.
Support health authorities to implement vector control strategies aimed at reducing Aedes 

mosquito populations.
Prepare recommendations for the clinical care and follow-up of people with complications related 

to Zika virus infection, in collaboration with experts and other health agencies.

Zika Strategic Response Framework

http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/zika/en/

*

http://www.who.int/emergencies/zika-virus/response/en/

*

Zika virus sequences
Search nucleotide and protein sequences
Virus Variation how to guide

More Zika virus information

NCBI Zika virus reference genome
Publications in PubMed
NLM Zika virus health information resources

External Zika virus resources

HealthMap
CDC
WHO
ViralZone

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genome/viruses/variation/Zika/

*

 

U.S. Federal Agencies
U.S. Organizations
International Organizations
National Government (non-U.S.) Web Sites
Pregnancy and Zika Virus
Free Resources from Publishers for Medical Responders
Biomedical Journal Literature and Reports
Situation Reports
Genome, Sequences, and Virus Variation
Laboratory Detection and Diagnosis of Zika Virus
Clinical Trials
Research, Development and Funding
Surveillance and Control of Mosquito Vectors
Travel
Maps
Social Media
Multi-Language Resources
Health Resources for the Public

U.S. Federal Agencies

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Zika Virus
Also in Spanish.
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report – Zika Reports
National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Zika and Birth Defects: The Evidence Mounts
NIH Director’s Blog – Zika Virus: An Emerging Health Threat
National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health
Zika Virus
U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
Zika Virus Response Updates from FDA
Office of Human Services Emergency Preparedness and Response, Administration 

for Children & Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
What Head Start or Child Care Programs Need to Know About Zika Virus
History of Medicine Division, National Library of Medicine
Global Health Events Historical archive of Web documents on Ebola and Zika Virus.

U.S. Organizations

American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists
Zika Virus: Guidance and Information for Health Care Providers
American Academy of Pediatrics
Zika Virus
American Medical Association
Zika Virus Resource Center
American Nurses Association
Zika Virus Information
American Public Health Association
Zika
Center for Infectious Disease Research & Policy (CIDRAP), University of Minnesota
Zika

International Organizations

European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC)
Zika virus infection
Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), World Health Organization
Zika Virus Infection
Also available in Spanish.
World Health Organization (WHO)
Zika virus and complications
Zika virus disease
WHO Zika App
iOS version
Android version
International Society for Infectious Diseases
ProMed-mail in English
ProMed-mail in Portuguese, focusing on Latin America
ProMed-mail in Spanish, focusing on Latin America

https://sis.nlm.nih.gov/dimrc/zikavirus.html

*

Letter From President Obama — Zika Virus
The White House
Office of the Press Secretary

Dear Mr. Speaker:

Today, I ask the Congress to consider the enclosed FY 2016 emergency supplemental 

appropriations request of approximately $1.9 billion to respond to the Zika virus both 

domestically and internationally. This funding would build upon ongoing preparedness 

efforts and provide resources for the Departments of Health and Human Services and 

State, and the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). Funding would 

support immediate response activities to prevent the spread of, prepare for, and respond 

to Zika virus transmission; fortify domestic public health systems to prevent, detect, and 

respond to Zika virus transmission; speed research, development, and procurement of 

vaccines, therapeutics, and diagnostics; provide emergency assistance to States and the 

U.S. Territories to combat the virus; provide additional Federal Medicaid funding in 

Puerto Rico and the other U.S. Territories for health services for pregnant women at risk 

of infection or diagnosed with Zika virus, and for children with microcephaly, and for 

other health care costs; and enhance the ability of Zika-affected countries to better combat 

mosquitoes, control transmission, and support affected populations.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports 50 laboratory-confirmed cases of 

the Zika virus among U.S. travelers from December 2015 – February 5, 2016. In addition, 

the Pan American Health Organization reports 26 countries and territories in the Americas 

with local Zika transmission. On February 1, 2016, the World Health Organization declared 

the Zika virus a Public Health Emergency of International Concern.

My foremost priority is to protect the health and safety of Americans. This request supports 

the necessary steps to fortify our domestic health system, detect and respond to any potential 

Zika outbreaks at home, and to limit the spread in other countries.

The request includes approximately $1.9 billion to respond to Zika virus transmission across 

the United States and internationally. In addition, transfer authority is requested to allow for 

sufficient response and flexibility across the Federal Government to address changing 

circumstances and emerging needs related to the Zika virus.

My Administration requests that the funding described above be designated as emergency 

requirements pursuant to section 251(b)(2)(A) of the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit 

Control Act of 1985, as amended.

I urge the Congress to act expeditiously in considering this important request, the details of 

which are set forth in the enclosed letter from the Director of the Office of Management and 

Budget.

Sincerely,

BARACK OBAMA

For Immediate Release

February 22, 2016

https://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2016/02/22/letter-president-zika-virus

*

http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/physician-resources/public-health/zika-resource-center.page

OR

http://tinyurl.com/je7nu9d

*

http://tinyurl.com/je7nu9d

Resources for the Public

What you need to know about Zika virus

Information from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

 

Frequently asked questions about Zika virus

Videos, fact sheets and other information from the World Health Organization (WHO) that 

explain what the virus is, which symptoms to look for and how to protect your family

 

Zika virus infection, prevention and recommendations for pregnant women

Infographics, frequently asked questions, interactive games and more 

from the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and WHO

 

Zika and pregnancy

Latest information from the CDC for pregnant women

 

Information for parents about Zika virus

Latest information from the CDC for parents

 

Zika virus disease

Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) patient page from April 13

 

How to protect against mosquito bites

Latest information from the CDC

 

Zika-infected areas

World map and list of countries and territories with active Zika transmission, provided by the CDC

 

CDC issues advice for travel to the 2016 Summer Olympic Games

Press release from Feb. 26

 

Resources for Physicians

Understanding Zika Virus

 

Zika virus information for health care professionals

Includes clinical evaluation and diagnostic testing information from the CDC

 

Interim CDC Zika response plan

Initial response to Zika virus Infections in continental U.S. and Hawaii

 

CDC Zika Action Plan Summit

Presentations and Resources from April 1

 

Zika and pregnancy

CDC Vital Signs from April 1

 

Possible Zika virus infection among pregnant women — United States and territories, May 2016

MMWR from May 20

 

CDC changes reporting of numbers of pregnant women affected by Zika virus

CDC media statement from May 20

 

Male-to-male sexual transmission of Zika virus — Texas, January 2016

CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) from April 15

 

Survey of blood collection centers and implementation of guidance 

for prevention of transfusion-transmitted Zika virus infection — Puerto Rico, 2016

MMWR from April 15

 

Estimating contraceptive needs and increasing access to contraception in response 

to the Zika virus disease outbreak — Puerto Rico, 2016

MMWR from March 25

 

Travel-associated Zika virus disease cases among U.S. residents — 

United States, January 2015–February 2016

MMWR from March 18

 

Zika virus infection among U.S. pregnant travelers — August 2015–February 2016

MMWR from March 4

 

Transmission of Zika virus through sexual contact with travelers to areas of ongoing 

transmission — continental United States, 2016

MMWR from March 4

 

Notes from the field: Evidence of Zika virus infection in brain and placental tissues 

from 2 congenitally infected newborns and 2 fetal losses—Brazil, 2015

MMWR from Feb. 10

 

Increase in reported prevalence of microcephaly in infants born to women living in 

areas with confirmed Zika virus transmission during the first trimester of pregnancy — 

Brazil, 2015

MMWR from March 8

 

Zika virus emergency preparedness and response

Latest information from the WHO

 

Zika virus infection

Information and resources from the PAHO and WHO

 

Zika virus spreads to new areas: Region of the Americas

MMWR from Jan. 22

 

Clinical Guidance

 

Zika virus—what clinicians need to know

CDC webinar from Jan. 26

 

CPT codes for Zika-related imaging and lab test procedures

Last updated April 15

 

Diagnostic testing of urine specimens for suspected Zika virus infection

CDC Health Advisory from May 25

 

Updated interim guidance for prevention of sexual transmission of Zika virus — 

United States, 2016 MMWR from April 1

 

Updated interim guidance for health care providers caring for women of reproductive 

age with possible Zika virus exposure — United States, 2016

MMWR from March 25

 

Preventing transmission of Zika virus in labor and delivery settings through 

implementation of standard precautions — United States, 2016

MMWR from March 22

 

Updated interim guidelines for prevention of sexual transmission of Zika virus — 

United States, 2016

CDC Health Advisory from Feb. 23

 

Interim guidelines for health care providers caring for infants and children with possible 

Zika virus infection

MMWR from Feb. 19

 

Recommendations for donor screening, deferral, and product management to reduce 

the risk of transfusion-transmission of Zika virus

FDA guidance Feb. 2016

 

Updated interim guidelines for health care providers caring for pregnant women and 

women of reproductive age with possible Zika virus exposure

MMWR from Feb. 12

 

Updated interim guidelines for the evaluation and testing of infants with possible 

congenital Zika virus infection

MMWR from Feb. 26

 

Interim guidelines for pregnant women during a Zika virus outbreak

MMWR from Jan. 22

 

Possible association between Zika virus infection and microcephaly

MMWR from Jan. 22

 

Questions and answers for health care providers caring for pregnant women and 

women of reproductive age with possible Zika virus exposure

CDC resource updated Feb. 9

 

Recognizing, managing and reporting Zika virus infections in travelers returning 

from Central America, South America, the Caribbean and Mexico

CDC Health Advisory from Jan. 15

 

Medical Journal Articles

 

On the seasonal occurrence and abundance of the Zika Virus vector mosquito 

Aedes Aegypti in the contiguous United States

PLOS Current Outbreaks published March 16

 

Is the United States prepared for a major Zika virus outbreak?

JAMA Viewpoint published April 13

 

Zika virus

New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) from March 30

 

Pregnancy in the time of Zika: addressing barriers for developing vaccines 

and other measures for pregnant women

JAMA Viewpoint published March 22

 

Zika virus infection in pregnant women in Rio de Janeiro — preliminary report

NEJM from March 4

 

Infectious Zika viral particles in breast milk

Lancet Correspondence from March 1

 

Guillain-Barre syndrome outbreak associated with Zika virus infection in French Polynesia: 

a case-control study

Lancet from Feb. 26

 

Detection and sequencing of Zika virus from amniotic fluid of fetuses with microcephaly in Brazil: 

a case study

Lancet Infectious Disease from Feb. 17

 

“Pregnancy in the time of Zika: addressing barriers for developing vaccines and 

other measures for pregnant women”

JAMA Viewpoint published Feb. 24

 

“Researchers focus on solving the Zika riddles”

Commentary on establishing causality, vaccine research, and containment 

published in JAMA Feb. 24

 

“What pediatricians and other clinicians should know about Zika virus”

JAMA Pediatrics Viewpoint published Feb. 18

 

“Ocular findings in infants with microcephaly associated with presumed 

Zika virus congenital infection in Salvador, Brazil”

Significant new clinical data on the Zika virus and infants, published online 

in JAMA Ophthalmology, Feb. 9

 

“Zika virus infection and the eye”

Commentary on ocular findings in infants, published online in 

JAMA Ophthalmology, Feb. 9

 

“The emerging Zika pandemic: Enhancing preparedness”

JAMA Viewpoint published Jan. 27

 

“Anticipating the international spread of Zika virus from Brazil”

Published in The Lancet, Jan. 23

 

“Zika virus in the Americas—yet another arbovirus threat”

Commentary published in The New England Journal of Medicine, Jan. 13 

(e-publication ahead of print)

 

Potential sexual transmission of Zika virus

CDC Emerging Infectious Diseases dispatch from Feb. 2015

 

Medical Products

 

Zika virus response updates

Latest from FDA

FDA allows use of investigational test to screen blood donations for Zika virus

FDA press release from March 30

 

Occupational Exposure

 

Interim guidance for protecting workers from occupational exposure to Zika Virus

OSHA and NIOSH guidance from April 22

 

Research

 

Potential research priorities to inform public health and medical practice 

for domestic Zika virus: workshop in brief

Institute of Medicine Workshop Summary from Feb. 16

 

Notice of NIAID’s interest to highlight high-priority Zika virus research areas

Research notice by the National Institutes of Health from Jan. 22

 

Vector Control

 

Interim recommendations for Zika vector control in the continental United States

CDC from March 18

 

FDA announces comment period for draft environmental assessment for 

genetically engineered mosquito

FDA from March 11

 

Advocacy Letters

 

AMA Letter to the House, May 26, 2016

 

AMA Letter to the Senate, May 26, 2016

 

http://tinyurl.com/pxbe3hv

 

 

.

 

.

 

 

WEBBIB1617

 

http://tinyurl.com/gtdzaq3

 

 

.

 

.

Sincerely,

David Dillard

Temple University

(215) 204 – 4584

jwne@temple.edu

http://workface.com/e/daviddillard

Net-Gold

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http://listserv.temple.edu/archives/net-gold.html

https://groups.io/org/groupsio/Net-Gold/archives

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General Internet & Print Resources

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COUNTRIES

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EMPLOYMENT

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TOURISM

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DISABILITIES

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INDOOR GARDENING

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The Russell Conwell Learning Center Research Guide:

THE COLLEGE LEARNING CENTER

http://tinyurl.com/obcj6rf

Information Literacy

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Research Guides

https://sites.google.com/site/researchguidesonsites/

Nina Dillard’s Photographs on Net-Gold

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and also at

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Twitter: davidpdillard

Temple University Site Map

https://sites.google.com/site/templeunivsitemap/home

Bushell, R. & Sheldon, P. (eds),

Wellness and Tourism: Mind, Body, Spirit,

Place, New York: Cognizant Communication Books.

Wellness Tourism: Bibliographic and Webliographic Essay

David P. Dillard

http://tinyurl.com/p63whl

RailTram Discussion Group

From the Union Pacific to BritRail and Beyond

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HEALTH DIET FITNESS RECREATION SPORTS TOURISM

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The Net-Gold relationship with JIGLU has

been terminated by JIGLU and these are dead links.

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Temple University Listserv Alert :

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